Registration for January 2018 intake is open!

Apply Online

For Applicants: +250 788 303 386


  • International conferences

The University successfully organised its first International Conference on 1st and 2nd  March 2017. It was titled THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCES IN BUSINESS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & DOCTORAL COLLOQUIUM. The conference was co-organised with Namibia University of Science and Technology and SRCC, University of Delhi. Several papers were presented  and are due to be published in the University of Kigali Scientific Journal. The abstracts are however as shown below:

  1. Enhancing trust in cloud computing using md5 hashing algorithm and rsa encryption standard

Katende Nicholas, Department of Information Technology and Architecture, University of Kigali and

Cheruiyot Wilson, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.


The clients concern about data security, data integrity, and sharing data with a specific band of men and women must be addressed. There are multiple means of achieving this, though the auditing capabilities of most existing systems focus on one-way auditability. This paper looks at cloud computing as one reliable way of addressing the concern raised, advising that Security audits should be carried out on the basis of one of the established standards for security controls. It is also important that consumers check that the sets of controls in place meet their security requirement.


  1. Crowd sourcing security intelligence using geocluster mapping

Benson Mugambi Njoni. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT), Kigali –   Rwanda.


Crowd sourcing, a practice of engaging the crowd or a group of people to provide solutions towards a common problem, has successfully been applied in competitive product innovation, disaster response, citizen journalism, public health, urban mapping among others. Global increase in crime and insecurity has inspired the need for better approaches (enabled by technology) to community policing and security intelligence gathering. Despite its successes in other areas of crowd sourcing, the potential of geocluster mapping to visualize, map and address crime and insecurity remains under explored. By examining the literature so far, this paper tries to highlight the application of crowd sourcing in security intelligence information for counter insurgency and counter terrorism, while also exploring future developments and how geocluster mapping can be applied in security intelligence crowd sourcing and visualization. The analysis will provide real life examples of crowd sourcing security intelligence information and the challenges faced so far

Keywords: Crowd sourcing, Security Intelligence, Geocluster mapping, Community policing,

                     Counter Insurgency

  1. Compact wideband circularly polarized inverted L-shaped microstrip antenna with a defected ground structure plane

Yatendra Kumar, Department of Engineering, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University,      Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Department of Electronics and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) and Binod  Kumar Kanaujia, School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.


 Microstrip antennas (MSA) are a most appropriate liking for modern age of communication systems because of their multifarious achievements like the compact size, simplex structural design, and lightness in weight, being easily fabricable, cost effectiveness, low profile, and ability to be integrated with microwave circuits. Microstrip antennas are extensively applicable in areas of industrial, scientific, medical, modern wireless communication systems and defense equipment like radar and missile guiding systems. Circular polarized microstrip antennas (CPMSA) offer even more stirring features, like sturdiness against adverse weather conditions and the aptitude to communicate irrespective of source and target relative orientation. These noticeable features make CPMSA the worthy applicants for outdoor communication systems, as well as for emerging non-conventional indoor applications. CP microstrip antennas are extensively chosen to be used for RFID, Wi-Fi systems, mobile communication systems, WLAN and GPS applications. A new antenna design, an optimized antenna prototype simulated with an overall size of 50mm x 50mm x 1.6mm at 2.12 GHz shows that it can yield an impedance bandwidth of approximately 37.60 % and a 3-dB AR bandwidth of approximately 24.15% along with 4.60 dBi highest peak gain achieved at 2.44 GHz frequency.

Key words: Axial ratio (AR) bandwidth, Broadband impedance bandwidth, Circular polarization, Defected ground structure (DGS).

  1. Environmental and Social Economics: Not Just for Government Anymore

Bansal, Department of Commerce, Swami Shraddhanand College, Delhi University-India  


Generations ago very few people were aware of economics beyond their own jobs and expenses, and few companies thought beyond the economics of their profit and loss statements. Industries were neither clean nor green, and gave little consideration to the impact of their business on environment. In the late 19th century a handful of men who were passionate about the natural beauty of the country in which we live advocated for its urgent protection, it gave rise to environmental movement. All this created awareness of the value of the world in which we live, and our responsibility to it as stewards or caretakers. With the growing awareness; public and industry began to see environmental problems as the major concern while doing their business. This realization gave birth to environmentalism into the world of business. Today businesses face plethora of environmental regulations which requires them to learn how to do business in a way that is not only ecologically and socially responsible, but also economically feasible and financially beneficial. Without proper planning and foresight, the environmental legislations and social reporting could drain a business dry. Environmental and social accounting grew due to its long lasting impact on company’s financial health. The developing countries like India are facing the twin problem of protecting the environment and promoting economic development. A tradeoff between environmental protection and development is required.  Therefore, the need for environmental accounting has emerged to cater for environmentally adjusted and sustainable income and product.

 Key words: Environmental accounting, Environmental Auditing, Environment Management accounting, Sustainable Reporting

  1. Environmental Clauses in Africa Continental Trade Regime: Current Law and Future Perspectives

Een Sanni, School of Law, Kampala International University, Uganda.

 The African Union (AU) aims at Continental Free Trade (CFT) in 2017 through a Continental Free Trade Agreement (CFTA). The legal foundation for the CFT is The Treaty Establishing the Africa Union Economic Community which seeks to liberalise trade “through abolition, among member states ,of custom duties levied  on imports and exports. In so doing, the Africa Union undertakes in the Treaty to “promote healthy environment”(art 58).The CTF is a monumental project that encompasses African  Regional Economic Communities including East Africa Community(EAC),Southern Africa Development Commission(SADC),Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA),which  formed a tripartite trade pact as a step towards the CFT and non-tripartite RECs such as Economic Community of West Africa States(ECOWAS) ,Economic Community of Central Africa (ECCAS) etc. All these member RECs of CFT have got environmental clauses in their regional constituent agreements and related trade agreements to varying degrees. In view of the enormity of environmental challenges in many African countries, there is need for a more comprehensive environmental regime governing these trade regimes under the auspices of CFT.  AU has the opportunity to include stronger environmental clauses in the evolving CFTA Framework that can meet the enormity of the environmental challenges on the continent. By way of doctrinal legal analysis of relevant AU Laws such as AU Constituent Act, this paper examines the scope of environmental clauses in AU continental trade regime in the context of those of its associated RECs and makes relevant recommendations on how the continental objective of sustainable development can be achieved through a stronger environmental regime.

Key words: Continental trade, Environmental clauses ,Continental trade treaties.

  1. Exchange rate Volatility and Trade: An Empirical Investigation

Renu Bansal, SRCC, Delhi University


This paper, tries to investigate theoretically and empirically the impact of bilateral

Nominal exchange rate volatility on bilateral and sectoral export flows of India to United Kingdom and United States over the period 2000 – 2014. Estimates of the co integrating relations are obtained

using Johansen’s multivariate procedure. Estimates of the short run dynamics are obtained for

bilateral exports and for each commodity and country using the error correction technique. The

results show that increases in volatility of nominal and real exchange rates exert a significant negative effect on export demand in the long run for most of the commodities for both countries for both volatility measures and for bilateral exports.  The impact is negative for both countries for squared residuals of an ARMA process measure. While the short run dynamics and Granger Causality results are mixed. These effects may result in significant reallocation of resources by market participants.

Key Words: Exchange Rate Volatility, Co-integration, Granger Causality, ARCH and GARCH


  1. Firm level determinants of Outwards Foreign Direct Investiments from India

Bhanumaurthy, K. V, Commerce Department, Delhi School of Economics, Delhi University, India. Niti Bhasin, Delhi School of Economics, Delhi University India and Vandana Jain, Shri Ram college of commerce, Delhi University, India


Over the last two decades cross border mergers and acquisitions from India have not only grown but have also become significant and voluminous. India has emerged as a significant recipient of not only inward Foreign Domestic Index (FDI) but also as a strategic investor of outward FDI to offshore destinations.  The paper undertakes to identify measure and statistically test various firm level determinants of Outward FDI from India during a period of twelve years from 1992 to 2010-11. The paper employs panel data and the empirical model is built around the theoretical underpinnings of Dunnings’ Ownership Location and Internalization as well as Mathews’ Linkages Leverage and Learning. To test the results, the Tobit model with the maximum likelihood is used. The results reveal that a number of independent variables like age of the firm, total investment, technological dependence, total foreign spending, investment in equity shares of group companies, Tobins Q, R&D intensity, export intensity, outsourced manufacturing jobs and marketing intensity are all statistically significant. Through the outcomes it can be suggested that research and development along with holistic environment for investment should be promoted and facilitated by the Indian Government.

Key words: Outward FDI, OLI, LLL, India

  1. Have Bilateral Investment Treaties increased Foreign Domestic Index into South Asia?

Sarthak Agrawal: Economics Student, SRCC, University of Delhi, India

                 Tanya Sethi:  Economics Student, SRCC, University of Delhi, India     


This paper empirically investigates the effect of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in South Asian countries. It employs a comprehensive panel data regression model to conclude that BITs have not led to an increase in FDI into SAARC economies, which is later established on theoretical grounds as well. These results, when juxtaposed with compelling studies highlighting the BIT’s perilous impact on a host country’s sovereignty indicate that a multilateral, cooperative and collaborative approach towards FDI policy could be Pareto improving for countries in this region; argued using a game theoretic model.            

Key Words:Bilateral Investment Treaties, Foreign Direct Investment

  1. Formulation of Flexible Strategy for Sustainable Spiritual Tourism in Reasi District of Jammu and Kashmir in India

Gaurav Rana, Department of Commerce, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi,

Santosh Sabharwal, Department of Commerce, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi.   



Tourism is a fast growing industry which has very vast and inexhaustible potential to

Enhance Gross domestic product, foreign exchange earnings and opportunities for

Employment in districts as well as the whole country. Countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Nepal have stimulated the growth of their economies by actively promoting tourism. It earns foreign exchange, provides employment and works as a medium for social interaction among others.

The objective of this research was to study the level of satisfaction of tourists, the determinants of spiritual tourism and problems faced by tourist in Reasi District, one of the oldest towns of Jammu and Kashmir State with major Hindu Pilgrimage Sites such as, Vaishno Devi, Shiv Khori, Darsar Baba and Baba Siyad. 

To understand the problems and challenges related tourism, a change and continuous matrix was drawn, leading to a strategic crystal and finally a strategic landscape which leads to improved tourism management.

Keywords: Spiritual Tourism Industry, Strategic Crystal, Reasi,

Jammu and Kashmir. 

  1. Impact of Economic Integration on Firm Performance of listed companies in East Africa: Theory and Review of Evidence 

Musyoki Danson (corresponding author) Catholic University of Eastern Africa and

Mugema Deogratias  Catholic University of Eastern Africa Nairobi, Kenya



The objective of this paper is to thoroughly review the theoretical and empirical literature on

The impact of economic integration from the perspective of the performance of listed firms in

East Africa.  The findings reveal that whereas there are several theories that underpin

integration, none can individually explain it. The static and dynamic theories dominate, while

the gravitational model remains the most used method.  The literature shows that most studies

have been done in the developed countries and less in the developing world.  The findings

reveal a positive association between integration and trade in the developed nations while in

the developing world the findings are mixed.  Overall there is hardly any literature on the

impact of integration at firm level and none for listed firms in EAC.  The scanty literature and

mixed findings in the developing world indicate a research gap and therefore more research

should be carried out.        

Key Words: Economic Integration, Gravitational Model, Static and Dynamic theories  

  1. A comparative study of marginal costing and absorption costing of selected Namibia Brewery (Pty) Ltd products

Nakweenda T. L, University of Namibia


Inventory is considered as one of the major components of working capital management as it takes up more than sixty percent of working capital. Thus, correct valuation inventory is one of the challenges that every manufacturing entity encounters. Applying an appropriate costing method for inventory valuation is considered as an important task because of the impact that inventory values have on the company’s financial performance. Though the marginal costing is perceived to be the most appropriate costing method as it applies the cause and effect principle, it is not yet clear as to whether it is the most appropriate costing method over the absorption costing method. This study, therefore, intends to make a comparison between the two methods using regression analysis in order to determine which of the two costing methods is the most appropriate in valuing inventory in the manufacturing industry. 

Key words: Profit, Costs, Namibia Breweries, Inventory valuation


  1. Li-Fi Technology: Bridging The Radio Frequency Communication Gap

                Shorunke M and Singh U. G, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.


Communication in the modern day era is predominantly dependent on Information and Communication Technology (ICT).  The  rise  in cybercrime,  digital  espionage  and  other  cyber-related  disturbances  is one  of great concern to cyberspace users, both corporate and individual. Radio Frequency technologies and solutions been adopted for in-building, and outdoor wireless coverage solutions for the supply-chains  market, including turnkey solutions for optimized communications,  have all been faced with security issues. This paper suggests a secure network communications route (Li-Fi Technology) alternative for users of radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies and solutions. A communication  path that is resilient and resistant to disruptions by mitigating sophisticated  network communication attacks  such  as  spoofing  and  TCP/IP  attacks  (Man-In-the-middle  attacks,  Denial  of Service  attacks).  This paper proposes the use of Li-Fi network for a safe and secure cyberspace communication exchange path. 

Keywords: Li-Fi, Wi-Fi, RFID, LED, Network, Communication, Attacks 


  1. Educators’ Teaching Strategies in e-Learning Environments
  2. Author, Fellow, IEEE, B. Author, Member, IEEE


The benefits of the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning are a subject of ongoing debate. In terms of the benefit of improved students’ performance, there has been a major focus on educators with regards to proficiency, acceptance, intentions and actual use of ICTs for teaching and learning. However, the effect of these educators’ teaching philosophy on how they use ICTs for teaching and learning are less well studied. The purpose of this paper is to examine educators’ teaching strategies in order to identify those educators who agree with educational approaches which are compatible with the learning advantages associated with e-learning. This will enable the proposal of a suitable teaching and learning strategy that will facilitate the improvement of students’ performance through e-learning. A survey of 65 educators in Camperdown schools in the Pinetown district of KwaZulu-Natal province was conducted. The survey was based on a literature review of teaching and learning theories. The results showed that constructivist and progressivist educators have a positive perception of e-learning. Such educators are therefore recommended to pilot elearning projects in schools.  

Key words: Constructivism, Progressivism, Behaviorism, Transmissive based learning, elearning

  1. The Perception of South African Non-Executive Directors on Multiple Directorships

Ross Vandiar, Amsterdam, The Netherlands         


Research has identified that there is a significant shortage of skills and talent for the appointment of directors in South Africa. On the other hand, the introduction of Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE), which enforces a minimum representation of previously disadvantaged individuals in management and ownership of companies, creates a unique context in South Africa which adds to the pressure placed by the lack of skills. It is argued, that the result of the above factors results in few directors serving on multiple Company Boards in South Africa.

This study analyses the perceptions of non-executive directors in the top 40 companies listed on the JSE in South Africa. The study explores the number of boards that responding non-executive directors serve on and then investigates the perceptions of the responding directors on the ideal number of company boards that a model non-executive director could serve on responsibly. 

The findings suggest that it is ideal for a South African non-executive director to serve on only one company board. However, the findings acknowledge the benefits of non-executive directors serving on two company boards and the study is not opposed to this possibility. However, it is strongly recommended that a nonexecutive director in South Africa should not serve on more than two company boards. 

Keywords:Non-executive directors, multiple directorships, corporate governance

  1. The South African Retail clothing Industry: Micro entrepreneurs perceptions of the importance of book keeping in comparison to other entrepreneurial skills.

 Moses Nyathi,  Department of Entrepreneurship and Business Management Cape Peninsula University of Technology and Olumide Henrie Benedict,  School of Accounting Sciences Cape Peninsula University of Technology


The South African clothing industry has recorded a massive business failure over the past years. Insufficient entrepreneurial skills have been blamed as the major cause of entrepreneurial failure. Bookkeeping skills are integral among entrepreneurial skills in business operation used to determine whether an enterprise is making profit or not. Further, bookkeeping skills determines whether the incorporation of non-educational entrepreneurial skills are contributing to the business profitability.  The aim of this study is to provide insights on micro-entrepreneurs’ perceptions of bookkeeping in comparison to non-educational entrepreneurial skills such as: cognitive skills, problem solving skills, entrepreneurial creativity skills and networking skills. The system theory was applied for this study with the view of micro-enterprises as a system with interdisciplinary entrepreneurial skills functioning together towards sustainable business success. Structured interviews were conducted to collect data with a sample size n 54. Thereafter, content and thematic analysis were used to analyse data. The findings revealed that micro-entrepreneurs understood the concept of entrepreneurship as multiple-disciplinary in approach. Hence the majority opined that bookkeeping is one of the important skills among other business skills. The ability to sell was singled-out as the most important business skill the rationale being that bookkeeping and a business cannot exist without sales. The implications of this study as well as avenues for further studies were discussed.  

Keywords: Micro-entrepreneur perceptions, Bookkeeping skills, Non-educational entrepreneurial skills, South Africa.    

  1. Water Marking Algorithm Applied to RGB Image

Hari Kumar Singh. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering  IET MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly India Pooja Singh Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering  IET MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly (U.P.) India. Tomar S.K. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering  IET MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly (U.P.) India


The sudden increase in watermarking interest is most likely due to the increase in concern over copyright protection and security of content. Information hiding can be mainly divided into three processes – cryptography, stenography and watermarks. Although copy prevention and copyright protection have been major driving forces behind research in the watermarking field, there are many other applications for which watermarking has been used or suggested. This paper explains the applications in detail. 

Keywords: Copyright Protection, Information hiding, broadcast monitoring, Authentication, Attack detection, Wavelet decomposition, Human visual system (HVS).


  • Publications

The University has a peer reviewed Journal…..

  • Economic and business
  • IT and Architecture
  • Law

Registration is open !

Registration for January 2018 intake is open for both Kigali and Musanze campuses

DON’T MISS! ENROLL NOW! LIMITED SPACES AVAILABLE! Interested applicants can apply online on our website OR visit the office of the Registrar at our main campus, Prester House, Kacyiru in Kigali. Applicants in Musanze can visit our campus located at RSSB building.

For more details or inquiries , we may be contacted at: Tel : 0788303386 / 0788303385


Upcoming Events


    Visit UoK Center for Economic Governance and Leadership


    UoK Maiden Graduation